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Identity management: extraterritorial citizenship politics

Extra-territorial (transborder) nation-building practices in Vojvodina. Kin-state activities in Vojvodina by foreign countries as Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria and Croatia, are increasing people's sense to belong to the country of their ancestors. Serbia, will have to show political maturity to manage its ethnic diversity, problems with state loyalty of citizens, economic migration to escape poverty,  and it own conflicting domestic and foreign policy in the context of the planned EU accession. To this day, historical events are still influencing the demographic movements in Vojvodina/Serbia, politics of national identity of different ethnic/minority groups, and citizenship. BEC 

State-building practices in the Balkans in historical perspective: characterized by a sequence of tribal coalitions and intermarriage of different ethnicities, including efforts to assimilate minorities, to increase the hegemony of chiefs, monarchs, nations; and political, economic, and military coalitions. BEC

Strategic convergence of interests between Hungary and Serbia: "Today’s friendship between Hungary and Serbia is the result of a ten-year process of strategic convergence of interests – and of concessions that Serbia has made to advance on the EU path." Milošević, Ana, PhD. April 6, 2018. Serbia and Hungary Play Cynical Games With Past | Balkan Insight  

Kin-state involvement to defend co-ethnics in another state: "…, most of the major minority groups have a kin-state in the region. ‘Kin state involvement in ethnic conflicts is based on an assertion of strong ethnonational ties that cross borders and entails “the right, and even obligation to defend” co-ethnics in another state’ (Caspersen, 2008a: 357)."

Polarization - EU and the Balkans: "While language previously had been a means to unite Balkan Slavs, it became an instrument of nationalism wielded by politically motivated actors to widen the division among the ethnicities. Language disputes did not destroy Yugoslavia, but they may hinder recovery and modernization. As each Yugoslav successor state strives toward integration into the European Union, political questions concerning language may polarize domestic politics and inhibit regional cooperation, thereby hampering efforts to carry out needed economic and political reforms." Rice, Eric A. (2010). Language politics in Bosnia, Croatia, and Serbia - Calhoun: The NPS.

Co-Ethnics: "In my terms, ‘perceived co-ethnics’ are defined as people who are recognised by the citizenship (or ethnizenship) conferring state as belonging to its main ethnic group although they themselves not only do not embrace that definition but have a distinct national project of their own. In other words, this imagined political community is seeking recognition in its own right under a different name and with different claims from that of the self-fashioned kin-state. However, the self-fashioned kin-state offers citizenship to them." Dejan Stjepanović (2013). Perceived Co-Ethnics 'and Kin-State Citizenship in Southeastern Europe

Dialect, religion, and migration in the Balkan: Due of the turbulent history of the Balkans, the area became a patchwork of dialectal and religious differences. Bosnians, Croats and Serbs were historically often part of different cultural circles with foreign overlords that resulted in population migrations and the wide spread of Shtokavian dialect in the western Balkans. During that period, the Shtokavian dialect was referred to under a variety of names (e.g. "Slavic", "Serbian", "Croatian", "Bosnian", and "Illyrian"). The Balkan Peninsula and the Pannonian Basin endured for centuries frequently migration of people, due of trade routes, location on main waterways, conquering the fertile land for agriculture, famine, tribal mass migration (e.g. Celts, Slavs, Avars), local tribal wars to increase hegemony, Crusades, religious persecution, rise and fall of emperor- and kingdoms (e.g. Roman, Habsburg, Ottoman), forced expulsion, massacres of ethnic groups, shift of national borders, military alliances, and economic- and political blocks/interest. BEC

© Stichting Bunjevac European Center, 2015